Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

IBD is an important clinical entity, made up of two idiopathic processes:  Crohn Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC).  Risk factors involve both genetic (higher incidence in identical twins) and environmental sources.  Cigarette smoking = risk factor for CD, protective for UC.  Northern populations see higher rates of IBD.  Note:  may utilize ESR and CRP levels to…

Heart Failure Pathophysiology and Diagnosis

Pathophysiology In an average healthy person, normal LV ejection fraction (LVEF):  >50% Roughly 50% of those with heart failure have reduced left ventricular (LV) function (HFrEF) Heart cannot squeeze/contract properly, and then progressively dilates. The other 50% have preserved (normal contraction) LV function (HFpEF) Cannot relax properly, leading to high diastolic (filling) pressures. New heart failure…