Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

IBD is an important clinical entity, made up of two idiopathic processes:  Crohn Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC).  Risk factors involve both genetic (higher incidence in identical twins) and environmental sources.  Cigarette smoking = risk factor for CD, protective for UC.  Northern populations see higher rates of IBD.  Note:  may utilize ESR and CRP levels to …

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Esophageal Motility and Esophagitis

Motility Disorders and Esophagitis are must-know esophageal pathologies are NOT inherently malignant (cancerous), but may be associated with increased risk for malignancy.     Motility Disorders Achalasia – failure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to relax. Pathophysiology:  ganglion cell and myenteric plexus breakdown, cholinergic nerve predominance leading to persistent contraction of muscle. Cancer risk:  squamous …

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Introduction to Esophageal Problems

The very first entry in my GI & Hepatology study outline series will set the stage/define major descriptors of proximal GI (esophageal) symptoms and help with categorizing pathology. Dysphagia = the sensation that food and/or liquid is not appropriately going through the mouth/throat/esophagus.  Typical symptoms:  “food is getting stuck / impeded.” Oropharyngeal phase – food bolus …

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ACLS Protocols

As a senior internal medicine resident on night float and overnight call, I’m responsible for running to codes and rapid responses.  Rapid responses at my institution are critical patient situations that require urgent bedside attention for things like symptomatic supraventricular tachycardia, new typical chest pain, hemodynamic instability, etc.  Today after work, I wanted to brush up …

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